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Journal Description

JMIR Biomedical Engineering (JBME) is a new sister journal of JMIR (the leading open-access journal in health informatics), focusing on the application of engineering principles, technologies, and medical devices to medicine and biology. 

As an open access journal, we are read by clinicians and patients alike and have (as are all JMIR journals) a focus on readable and applied science reporting the design and evaluation of health innovations and emerging technologies. We publish original research, viewpoints, and reviews (both literature reviews and medical device/technology/app reviews).

During a limited period of time, there are no fees to publish in this journal. Articles are carefully copyedited and XML-tagged, ready for submission in PubMed Central.

Be a founding author of this new journal and submit your paper today!


Recent Articles:

  • A boy wearing a VR headset. Source: Wikimedia Commons; Copyright: Skydeas; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Immersive Virtual Reality in Health Care: Systematic Review of Technology and Disease States


  • Source: Unsplash; Copyright: Gus Moretta; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Factors That Contribute to the Use of Stroke Self-Rehabilitation Technologies: A Review


    Background: Stroke is increasingly one of the main causes of impairment and disability. Contextual and empirical evidence demonstrate that, mainly due to service delivery constraints, but also due to a move toward personalized health care in the comfort of patients’ homes, more stroke survivors undergo rehabilitation at home with minimal or no supervision. Due to this trend toward telerehabilitation, systems for stroke patient self-rehabilitation have become increasingly popular, with many solutions recently proposed based on technological advances in sensing, machine learning, and visualization. However, by targeting generic patient profiles, these systems often do not provide adequate rehabilitation service, as they are not tailored to specific patients’ needs. Objective: Our objective was to review state-of-the-art home rehabilitation systems and discuss their effectiveness from a patient-centric perspective. We aimed to analyze engagement enhancement of self-rehabilitation systems, as well as motivation, to identify the challenges in technology uptake. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search with 307,550 results. Then, through a narrative review, we selected 96 sources of existing home rehabilitation systems and we conducted a critical analysis. Based on the critical analysis, we formulated new criteria to be used when designing future solutions, addressing the need for increased patient involvement and individualism. We categorized the criteria based on (1) motivation, (2) acceptance, and (3) technological aspects affecting the incorporation of the technology in practice. We categorized all reviewed systems based on whether they successfully met each of the proposed criteria. Results: The criteria we identified were nonintrusive, nonwearable, motivation and engagement enhancing, individualized, supporting daily activities, cost-effective, simple, and transferable. We also examined the motivation method, suitability for elderly patients, and intended use as supplementary criteria. Through the detailed literature review and comparative analysis, we found no system reported in the literature that addressed all the set criteria. Most systems successfully addressed a subset of the criteria, but none successfully addressed all set goals of the ideal self-rehabilitation system for home use. Conclusions: We identified a gap in the state-of-the-art in telerehabilitation and propose a set of criteria for a novel patient-centric system to enhance patient engagement and motivation and deliver better self-rehabilitation commitment.

  • Interventional cardiology. Source: Shutterstock; Copyright: Dmitry Kalinovsky; URL:; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Modular Catheter Systems in Minimally Invasive Interventional Medical Procedures: Case Study


    Background: Medical device catheters that are used in minimally invasive interventional medical procedures all follow the same integrated design and use paradigm. The features and elements of any catheter device are combined in a single unitary construction. A modular approach to the design, construction, and use of these types of interventional catheters may provide significant advantages and benefits not available with an integrated design paradigm. Objective: This paper aimed to present the design of a modular catheter system and the findings from an initial veterinary use as a case study for the potential of modular catheter systems in general. Methods: A modular catheter system was designed using commercially available angioplasty balloon dilatation catheters as one module in the system and a custom designed scoring adapter as the other module. The scoring adapter incorporates wires to add scoring features to the angioplasty balloon catheter to improve the dilatation performance during a pulmonary valvuloplasty procedure. The scoring adapter also includes a novel attachment mechanism to couple the scoring adapter to any 0.035-inch guidewire–compatible angioplasty balloon catheter. Results: The modular catheter system was successfully designed, manufactured, and used in an initial minimally invasive veterinary cardiovascular intervention to treat a case of canine subvalvular pulmonary stenosis. The scoring adapter and angioplasty balloon catheter were successfully combined tableside in the operating room at the time of the procedure and used to successfully dilate the subvalvular obstruction. Conclusions: The successful design and use of the presented modular catheter system demonstrates the feasibility and potential advantages of this type of paradigm to enable physicians to create interventional catheter devices at the time of a procedure guided by the procedural needs.

  • Source: Freepik; Copyright: prostooleh; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    The Effects of Titanium Implant Surface Topography on Osseointegration: Literature Review


    Background: A variety of claims are made regarding the effects of surface topography on implant osseointegration. The development of implant surfaces topography has been empirical, requiring numerous in vitro and in vivo tests. Most of these tests were not standardized, using different surfaces, cell populations, or animal models. The exact role of surface chemistry and topography on the early events of the osseointegration of dental implants remains poorly understood. Objective: The aim of this study was to consider the major claims made concerning the effects of titanium implant surface topography on osseointegration. The osseointegration rate of titanium dental implants is related to their composition and surface roughness. The different methods used for increasing surface roughness or applying osteoconductive coatings to titanium dental implants were reviewed. Important findings of consensus were highlighted, and existing controversies were revealed. Methods: This paper considered many of the research publications listed in Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online and presented in biomedical research publications and textbooks. Surface treatments, such as titanium plasma spraying, grit blasting, acid etching, alkaline etching, anodization, polymer demixing, sol-gel conversion, and their corresponding surface morphologies and properties were described. Results: Many in vitro evaluations are not predictive of or correlated with in vivo outcomes. In some culture models, increased surface topography positively affects proosteogenic cellular activities. Many studies reveal increase in bone-to-implant contact (BIC), with increased surface topography modifications on implant surfaces. Conclusions: Increased implant surface topography improves the BIC and the mechanical properties of the enhanced interface.

  • The Oculus Touch controllers. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: Leia C Shum; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Determining the Accuracy of Oculus Touch Controllers for Motor Rehabilitation Applications Using Quantifiable Upper Limb Kinematics: Validation Study


    Background: As commercial motion tracking technology becomes more readily available, it is necessary to evaluate the accuracy of these systems before using them for biomechanical and motor rehabilitation applications. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the relative position accuracy of the Oculus Touch controllers in a 2.4 x 2.4 m play-space. Methods: Static data samples (n=180) were acquired from the Oculus Touch controllers at step sizes ranging from 5 to 500 mm along 16 different points on the play-space floor with graph paper in the x (width), y (height), and z (depth) directions. The data were compared with reference values using measurements from digital calipers, accurate to 0.01 mm; physical blocks, for which heights were confirmed with digital calipers; and for larger step sizes (300 and 500 mm), a ruler with hatch marks to millimeter units. Results: It was found that the maximum position accuracy error of the system was 3.5 ± 2.5 mm at the largest step size of 500 mm along the z-axis. When normalized to step size, the largest error found was 12.7 ± 9.9% at the smallest step size in the y-axis at 6.23 mm. When the step size was <10 mm in any direction, the relative position accuracy increased considerably to above 2% (approximately 2 mm at maximum). An average noise value of 0.036 mm was determined. A comparison of these values to cited visual, goniometric, and proprioceptive resolutions concludes that this system is viable for tracking upper-limb movements for biomechanical and rehabilitation applications. The accuracy of the system was also compared with accuracy values from previous studies using other commercially available devices and a multicamera, marker-based professional motion tracking system. Conclusions: The study found that the linear position accuracy of the Oculus Touch controllers was within an agreeable range for measuring human kinematics in rehabilitative upper-limb exercise protocols. Further testing is required to ascertain acceptable repeatability in multiple sessions and rotational accuracy.

  • The MIT-Wrist Robot. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: Stan Durand; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    The Impact of Aging and Hand Dominance on the Passive Wrist Stiffness of Squash Players: Pilot Study


    Background: Passive joint stiffness can influence the risk of injury and the ability to participate in sports and activities of daily living. However, little is known about how passive joint stiffness changes over time with intensive repetitive exercise, particularly when performing unilateral activities using the dominant upper limb. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the difference in passive wrist quasi-stiffness between the dominant and nondominant upper limb of competitive squash players, compare these results with a previous study on young unskilled subjects, and explore the impact of aging on wrist stiffness. Methods: A total of 7 healthy, right-side dominant male competitive squash players were recruited and examined using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Wrist-Robot. Subjects were aged between 24 and 72 years (mean 43.7, SD 16.57) and had a mean of 20.6 years of squash playing experience (range 10-53 years, SD 13.85). Torque and displacement data were processed and applied to 2 different estimation methods, the fitting ellipse and the multiple regression method, to obtain wrist stiffness magnitude and orientation. Results: Young squash players (mean 30.75, SD 8.06 years) demonstrated a stiffer dominant wrist, with an average ratio of 1.51, compared with an average ratio of 1.18 in young unskilled subjects. The older squash players (mean 64.67, SD 6.35 years) revealed an average ratio of 0.86 (ie, the nondominant wrist was stiffer than the dominant wrist). There was a statistically significant difference between the magnitude of passive quasi-stiffness between the dominant and nondominant wrist of the young and older squash player groups (P=.004). Conclusions: Findings from this pilot study are novel and contribute to our understanding of the likely long-term effect of highly intensive, unilateral sports on wrist quasi-stiffness and the aging process: adults who participate in repetitive sporting exercise may experience greater joint quasi-stiffness when they are younger than 45 years and more flexibility when they are older than 60 years.

  • Orthopedic surgeons. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: Àngels Salvador; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Perspectives of Orthopedic Surgeons on the Clinical Use of Bioprinted Cartilage: Qualitative Study


    Background: Over the past 60 years, no technique used for treating cartilage disorders has been completely successful. Bioprinting provides a highly anticipated, novel alternative solution to this problem. However, identifying barriers to this new technology is crucial in order to overcome them when bioprinting reaches the implementation stage. This kind of research has been declared essential because clinical efficacy and safety studies alone do not always lead to successful implementation. Objective: This qualitative study aimed to explore the stance of orthopedic surgeons on the use of bioprinted cartilage grafts for cartilaginous lesions. The study sought to summarize and classify the barriers and facilitators of this technique and to identify the key factors for successful implementation of bioprinted cartilage in routine clinical practice. Methods: A qualitative thematic analysis method was used to evaluate data obtained from semistructured interviews and from focus groups. Data were collected between June 2017 and February 2018. Interviews focused on the collection of expert opinions on bioprinted cartilage. Results: The perceived barriers to the adoption of this technology were (1) awareness of a lack of information on the status and possibilities of this technology, (2) uncertainty regarding compliance with current health care regulations and policies, and (3) demands for clinical evidence. The facilitators were (1) lack of surgical alternatives, (2) the perception that research is the basis of the current health system, and (3) the hope of offering a better quality of life to patients. Conclusions: The results of this study are preliminary in nature and cannot be generalized without a broader group of participants. However, the key factors identified provide a frame of reference to help understand the challenges of bioprinted cartilage and help facilitate the transition toward its clinical use. These findings will also provide information for use at multidisciplinary meetings in scientific societies; create bridges between researchers, orthopedic surgeons, and regulators; and open a debate on the funding of this technique and the business model that needs to be developed.

  • An Analytics Framework for Physician Adherence to Clinical Practice Guidelines: Knowledge-Based Approach


    Background: One of the problems in evaluating clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) is the occurrence of knowledge gaps. These gaps may occur when evaluation logics and definitions in analytics pipelines are translated differently. Objective: The objective of this paper is to develop a systematic method that will fill in the cognitive and computational gaps of CPG knowledge components in analytics pipelines. Methods: We used locally developed CPGs that resulted in care process models (CPMs). We derived adherence definitions from the CPMs, transformed them into computationally executable queries, and deployed them into an enterprise knowledge base that specializes in managing clinical knowledge content. We developed a visual analytics framework, whose data pipelines are connected to queries in the knowledge base, to automate the extraction of data from clinical databases and calculation of evaluation metrics. Results: In this pilot study, we implemented 21 CPMs within the proposed framework, which is connected to an enterprise data warehouse (EDW) as a data source. We built a Web–based dashboard for monitoring and evaluating adherence to the CPMs. The dashboard ran for 18 months during which CPM adherence definitions were updated a number of times. Conclusions: The proposed framework was demonstrated to accommodate complicated knowledge management for CPM adherence evaluation in analytics pipelines using a knowledge base. At the same time, knowledge consistency and computational efficiency were maintained.

  • Manual record analysis. Source: Pixabay; Copyright: rawpixel; URL:; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Automatic Near Real-Time Outlier Detection and Correction in Cardiac Interbeat Interval Series for Heart Rate Variability Analysis: Singular Spectrum...

    Authors List:


    Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) is derived from the series of R-R intervals extracted from an electrocardiographic (ECG) measurement. Ideally all components of the R-R series are the result of sinoatrial node depolarization. However, the actual R-R series are contaminated by outliers due to heart rhythm disturbances such as ectopic beats, which ought to be detected and corrected appropriately before HRV analysis. Objective: We have introduced a novel, lightweight, and near real-time method to detect and correct anomalies in the R-R series based on the singular spectrum analysis (SSA). This study aimed to assess the performance of the proposed method in terms of (1) detection performance (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy); (2) root mean square error (RMSE) between the actual N-N series and the approximated outlier-cleaned R-R series; and (3) how it benchmarks against a competitor in terms of the relative RMSE. Methods: A lightweight SSA-based change-point detection procedure, improved through the use of a cumulative sum control chart with adaptive thresholds to reduce detection delays, monitored the series of R-R intervals in real time. Upon detection of an anomaly, the corrupted segment was substituted with the respective outlier-cleaned approximation obtained using recurrent SSA forecasting. Next, N-N intervals from a 5-minute ECG segment were extracted from each of the 18 records in the MIT-BIH Normal Sinus Rhythm Database. Then, for each such series, a number (randomly drawn integer between 1 and 6) of simulated ectopic beats were inserted at random positions within the series and results were averaged over 1000 Monte Carlo runs. Accordingly, 18,000 R-R records corresponding to 5-minute ECG segments were used to assess the detection performance whereas another 180,000 (10,000 for each record) were used to assess the error introduced in the correction step. Overall 198,000 R-R series were used in this study. Results: The proposed SSA-based algorithm reliably detected outliers in the R-R series and achieved an overall sensitivity of 96.6%, specificity of 98.4% and accuracy of 98.4%. Furthermore, it compared favorably in terms of discrepancies of the cleaned R-R series compared with the actual N-N series, outperforming an established correction method on average by almost 30%. Conclusions: The proposed algorithm, which leverages the power and versatility of the SSA to both automatically detect and correct artifacts in the R-R series, provides an effective and efficient complementary method and a potential alternative to the current manual-editing gold standard. Other important characteristics of the proposed method include the ability to operate in near real-time, the almost entirely model-free nature of the framework which does not require historical training data, and its overall low computational complexity.

  • Source: Flickr; Copyright: Katrin Gilger; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + ShareAlike (CC-BY-SA).

    Auralife Instant Blood Pressure App in Measuring Resting Heart Rate: Validation Study


    Background: mHealth apps that measure heart rate using pulse photoplethysmography (PPG) are classified as class II (moderate-risk) Food and Drug Administration devices; therefore, these devices need clinical validation prior to public release. The Auralife Instant Blood Pressure app (AuraLife IBP app) is an mHealth app that measures blood pressure inaccurately based on a previous validation study. Its ability to measure heart rate has not been previously reported. Objective: The objective of our study was to assess the accuracy and precision of the AuraLife IBP app in measuring heart rate. Methods: We enrolled 85 adults from ambulatory clinics. Two measurements were obtained using the AuraLife IBP app, and 2 other measurements were achieved with a oscillometric device. The order of devices was randomized. Accuracy was assessed by calculating the relative and absolute mean differences between heart rate measurements obtained using each AuraLife IBP app and an average of both standard heart rate measurements. Precision was assessed by calculating the relative and absolute mean differences between individual measurements in the pair for each device. Results: The relative and absolute mean (SD) differences between the devices were 1.1 (3.5) and 2.8 (2.4) beats per minute (BPM), respectively. Meanwhile, the within-device relative and absolute mean differences, respectively, were <0.1 (2.2) and 1.7 (1.4) BPM for the standard device and −0.1 (3.2) and 2.2 (2.3) BPM for the AuraLife IBP app. Conclusions: The AuraLife IBP app had a high degree of accuracy and precision in the measurement of heart rate. This supports the use of PPG technology in smartphones for monitoring resting heart rate.

  • Articulating paper mark area. Source: The Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Relationship Between the Applied Occlusal Load and the Size of Markings Produced Due to Occlusal Contact Using Dental Articulating Paper and T-Scan:...


    Background: The proposed experimental design was devised to determine whether a relationship exists between the occlusal load applied and the size of the markings produced from tooth contact when dental articulating paper and T-Scan are interposed alternatively. Objective: The objective of our study was to compare the relationship between contact markings on an articulating paper and T-Scan for an applied occlusal load. Methods: In this in vitro study, dentulous maxillary and mandibular dies were mounted on a metal jig and articulating paper and T-Scan sensor were placed alternatively between the casts. Loads simulating occlusal loads began at 25 N and incrementally continued up to 450 N. The resultant markings (180 marks resulting from articulating paper and 138 from T-Scan) were photographed, and the marks were analyzed using MOTIC image analysis and sketching software. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance, Student t test, and Pearson correlation coefficient method. Results: Statistical interpretation of the data indicated that with articulating paper, the mark area increased nonlinearly with increasing load and there was a false-positive result. The characteristics of the paper mark appearance did not describe the amount of occlusal load present on a given tooth. The contact marking obtained using T-Scan for an applied occlusal load indicated that the mark area increased with increase in the load and provided more predictable results of actual load content within the occlusal contact. Conclusions: The size of an articulating paper mark may not be a reliable predictor of the actual load content within the occlusal contact, whereas a T-Scan provides more predictable results of the actual load content within the occlusal contact.

  • Source: Pexels; Copyright: bruce mars; URL:; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Wireless Surface Electromyography and Skin Temperature Sensors for Biofeedback Treatment of Headache: Validation Study with Stationary Control Equipment


    Background: The use of wearables and mobile phone apps in medicine is gaining attention. Biofeedback has the potential to exploit the recent advances in mobile health (mHealth) for the treatment of headaches. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the validity of selected wireless wearable health monitoring sensors (WHMS) for measuring surface electromyography (SEMG) and peripheral skin temperature in combination with a mobile phone app. This proof of concept will form the basis for developing innovative mHealth delivery of biofeedback treatment among young persons with primary headache. Methods: Sensors fulfilling the following predefined criteria were identified: wireless, small size, low weight, low cost, and simple to use. These sensors were connected to an app and used by 20 healthy volunteers. Validity was assessed through the agreement with simultaneous control measurements made with stationary neurophysiological equipment. The main variables were (1) trapezius muscle tension during different degrees of voluntary contraction and (2) voluntary increase in finger temperature. Data were statistically analyzed using Bland-Altman plots, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Results: The app was programmed to receive data from the wireless sensors, process them, and feed them back to the user through a simple interface. Excellent agreement was found for the temperature sensor regarding increase in temperature (CCC .90; 95% CI 0.83-0.97). Excellent to fair agreement was found for the SEMG sensor. The ICC for the average of 3 repetitions during 4 different target levels ranged from .58 to .81. The wireless sensor showed consistency in muscle tension change during moderate muscle activity. Electrocardiography artifacts were avoided through right-sided use of the SEMG sensors. Participants evaluated the setup as usable and tolerable. Conclusions: This study confirmed the validity of wireless WHMS connected to a mobile phone for monitoring neurophysiological parameters of relevance for biofeedback therapy.

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  • Consumer Perception of Wearable Technology Device: Retrospective Review and Analysis

    Date Submitted: Dec 19, 2019

    Open Peer Review Period: Dec 19, 2019 - Feb 13, 2020

    Background: Individuals of all ages are becoming more health conscious, and wearable technology devices (e.g., Fitbit and Apple Watch) are becoming increasingly popular in encouraging healthy lifestyl...

    Background: Individuals of all ages are becoming more health conscious, and wearable technology devices (e.g., Fitbit and Apple Watch) are becoming increasingly popular in encouraging healthy lifestyles. Objective: The objective of this paper was to explore how consumers utilize wearable devices. Methods: Retrospective review of the top rated verified purchase reviews of the Fitbit One posted on between January 2014 and August 2018. Relevant themes were identified by qualitatively analyzing open-ended reviews. Results: On retrieval, there were 9,369 reviews with 7,706 positive reviews and 1,663 critical reviews. The top 100 positive and top 100 critical comments were subsequently analyzed. Four major themes were identified: (1) sleep hygiene (“charts when you actually fall asleep, when you wake up during the night, when you're restless--and gives you a cumulative time of "actual sleep" as well as weekly averages.”); (2) motivation (“25 lbs lost after 8 months – best motivator ever!”); (3) accountability (“platform to connect with people you know and set little competitions or group…fun accountability if you set a goal with a friend/family.”); and (4) discretion (“able to be clipped to my bra without being seen.”). Alternatively, negative reviewers felt that the wearable device’s various tracking functions specifically steps and sleep were inaccurate. Conclusions: Wearable technology devices are an affordable, user-friendly application that can support all individuals throughout their everyday lives and potentially be implemented into medical surveillance, non-invasive medical care, and mobile health and wellness monitoring. This study is the first to explore wearable technology device use among consumers, and further studies are needed to examine the limitless possibilities of wearable devices in health care.